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Lyme Disease - Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb)
Known in the U.S. since the late 19th century, Lyme disease is a bacterial infection caused by a microscopic spirochete (illustrated left) named Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb). Bb spreads through larval and nymph stage ticks that feed on infected hosts. Human infection is believed to be from the nymph and adult stage ticks seeking blood meals. Estimates are that over 2 million people have had Lyme disease, with annual costs reaching an estimated $1 billion.

Babesiosis - Babesia microti

A Malaria-like infection caused by Babesia microti (illustrated right) that parasitize red blood cells. A blood test may reveal the parasite in red blood cells. Chronic mild infection can occur. It is more
severe, and can be fatal, in elderly people or in those who may
have had their spleens removed. Immunosuppression may occur. There are 68 species of Babesia of which at least 18 are known to be pathogenic to humans.

Anaplasmosis and Erlichiosis
Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) and human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) are bacterial infections caused by several types of rickettsiae (illustrated left) that invade and kill white blood cells. Neurologic manifestations include seizures, meningitis, confusion, ataxia, cranial nerve palsy, and change in mental status. Delayed treatment can result in death.The American dog, brown dog, lone star, and black-legged ticks transmit the pathogens.
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